مراحل شکل گیری یک جنبش / احمد قادری / کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی

 

خود سیاست در لغت به معنی پاس داشتن مُلک ؛ حکم راندن ؛ رعیت داری داوری ؛ تدبیر ؛ مصلحت و شکنجه  قهر و دور اندیشی و اینها ۰۰۰  اما خود سیاست در مفهوم اصطلاح سیاسی ؛ با مفهوم لغوی آن تفاوت زیادی دارد ؛ یعنی اگر بر اساس معنای لغوی آن سیاست را معنی کنیم، قطعا با مشکلات و سوء تفاهم های زیادی روبرو خواهیم شد.

اما برای این که از سیاست درک درست و منطقی داشته باشیم، باید با مفهوم اصطلاحی آن که درعلوم سیاسی  و حتی علوم جامعه شناسی به کار برده می شود ،با مفهوم اصطلاحی آن  آشنایی داشته باشیم.

و این آشنایی باعث می شود، تفاوتی که بین معنی لغوی آن و مفهوم اصطلاحی آن است  را به آن تعاریف ؛ به آن تفاوت دسترسی پیدا کنیم و با توجه  به تعریفی که از مفهوم سیاست  به دست می دهیم ؛ می توانیم آینده جنبش فرهنگیان ؛ جنبش معلمان ؛هر جنبش اجتماعی دیگری ؛ با آن  مسائل ومفهوم و اصطلاح سیاسی رابطه و توازن بر قرار کنیم و بتوانیم مفهوم درستی از آن داشته باشیم.

خود سیاست یعنی اصطلاح مفهومی سیاست یا پولیتیک به معنای آنچه مربوط به شهر  اداره آن  متعلقات به آن است یا توضیح اقتدار آمیز  ارزش هاست  یا در جایی دیگری به مجموعه تدابیر حکومت به منظور اداره کشور معنی شده است ؛ روابط  قدرت ویا کیفیت توزیع قدرت می باشد این ها مفهوم های اصطلاحی سیاست است، تاریخ مهم دیگری از سیاست علم سیاست ؛ علم حکومت بر کشور است ؛ دووُزه تعریفسیاست را اینگونه بیان می کند : ” سیاست علم قدرت است؛ که توسط دولت به کار می رود.”

جنبش معنی لغوی حرکت است جنبش اجتماعی معنی حرکت اجتماعی است ؛ اما جنبش اجتماعی کوشش جمعی یا سازمان یافته گروه یا جمعی که می خواهند  برخی از شئونات جامعه را تغییر دهند و یا از وقوع تغییر برخی مسائل جلو گیری کنند ، بنابراین چون فعالیت فرهنگیان برای تغییر یک سری مسائل واجتماعیش   موانع و مشکلاتی است که در آموزش وپرورش وجود دارد ؛ ویا حتی برخی در بعضی مواقع از برخی تغییراتی که آن ها می خواهند ایجاد کنند.

جنبش اجتماعی فرهنگیان  می خواهد از آن تغییرات حتی جلوگیری کند ؛ بنابراین  انجمن صنفی ؛ شورای هماهنگی ؛ فعالیت های صنفی فرهنگیان می تواند  در زُمره جنبش اجتماعی فرهنگیان قرار  گیرد ، اما بعضی مواقع ما فکر می کنیم که به محض این که اسم جنبش را می آورند؛ فکرمی کنیم که حتما جنبش با یک زد و خورد و خشونت و این جور مسائل سرو کاردارد و اما به واقع چنین  نیست درسته ؛ جنبش های ما ؛ جنبش  های متعددی داریم :

بعضی جنبش های اصلاحاتی یا جنبشهای انقلابی ؛ جنبش ترقی خواه ؛ اصلاح طلب ؛ محافظه کارواپسگرا ؛ انواع جنبش داریم ویکی از مهم ترین این جنبش ها جنبش اجتماعی است و جنبش اجتماعی ؛ جنبشی است  که کمتر با خشونت سرو کار دارد و هدفش تغییر وضع موجود به گونه ای که به سمت جلو حرکت کند ؛ مناسب باشد و مصلحت عموم را هم در نظر بگیرد بنابراین ؛ جنبش  اجتماعی فرهنگیان را نباید با جنبش های رادیکال و جنبش های تند رو و خشونت طلب همسان دانست متاسفانه در واژه ی جنبش  بعضی مواقع بد تعبیر می کنند، مفهوم را هم بد دریافت می کنند و به محض این که اسم جنبش را می برند فکر می کنند حتما باید یا خشونت سریع و قوی  همراه باشه  اما چنین نیست  و بایدما فعالیت های یک گروه ؛ یک انجمن یک صنف را که در مسیرحرکت به جلو با در نظر گرفتن منافع عامه است به عنوان یک جنبش تلقی کنیم. جنبش های اجتماعی نوین به عنوان یک پروسه باید مراحلی راطی نمایند.

 

احمد قادر فعال صنفی انجمن فرهنگیان کردستان / سقز / کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی

 

جنبش ها عمدتا باید چهار مرحله را پشت سر  بگذارند تا بتوانند به یک جنبش اجتماعی کارا و مورد قبول و پسند گروه های اجتماعی و به  خصوص هم صنفی های خود قرار بگیرند .
یکم /  تشخیص مسئله و مشکل :  یکگروه اجتماعی است ، موقعی که آنها توانستند مسئله را به دقت و اصولی تعریف کنند و پیدا بکنند، دور هم جمع می شوند و یک گروه اجتماعی را برای رسیدگی به آن مشکل و معضل تشکیل می دهند،که در این میان شبکه های اجتماعی جهت ارتباط موثر میان اعضا نقش  موثری را ایفا می کند.

دوم اعتراض عدم سکوت در برابر این حقوق یا این مسئله هست ؛ حقوق ضایع شده یا مسئله یا مشکل موانع هست.

اکثر جنبش های اجتماعی مسالمت آمیزند اما در صورت بی اعتنایی و بی تفاوتی نهاد های دولتی نسبت به آن و خواسته های کُنشگران ممکن است به سمت خشونت تمایل پیدا بکند ؛ هر چندخوشبختانه در میان جنبش  اجتماعی  فرهنگیان تا به الان  دیده نشده ؛ که این مسائل و  مشکلات به سمت خشونت تمایلپیدا کند .

سوم ؛ پیدا کردن تعریف یک هویت جمعی برای شروع و  مشروعیت  بخشی وتداوم استدلال کُنش است ؛ اگر یک  مسیر درست را پیدا بکنند، یک هویت کلی را پیدا بکنند، یک هویت جمعی را پیدا بکنند همه به دور آن جمع شوند و نقطه مشترکی برای همه باشد، می توانند مسیر را به درستی  طی بکنند و استمرار داشته  باشند و به خواسته ها و اهدافی  که از قبل بیمه کرده اند تا  اندازه ای برسند.

چهارم موقعی که  توانستندسه مرحله ی بالا را با موفقیت پشت سر بگذارند   جنبش های اجتماعی ؛ وارد  مرحله چهارم می شود که افراد  توانا و دور اندیش و صاحب نظردر جنبش خود را نشان می دهند  و کمیته رهبری را تشکیل می دهند  و جالبه چون شیوه رهبری در  این جنش های اجتماعی از بالا به پایین نیست بلکه افقی است  و همه در این مدیریت حق اظهار  نظر و گفتگو دارند ؛ پس رهبری  و هدایت آن ساده تر می شود و  همه می توانند مشارکت فعال  داشته باشند و جنبش را به پیش  ببرند ؛ پس اگر ما این موانع را  پیدا کردیم ؛ این مسیر را پیدا  کردیم مطمئنا می تواند مسیر حرکت صنفی معلمان را به جلو   ببرد.

 

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